6. Play dead when encountering big animals like grizzly bears.
When running into a bear, the best thing to do is slowly back-step yourself out of the situation, since most of the times the bear is actually more afraid of you than you are of it. On the other hand, during a black bear attack, fighting back is a good idea, but a grizzly bear is much larger and more powerful, so the best chance of survival is to curl up in a ball and play dead.
7. Cross where the water is deep and slow, instead of where it’s shallower and moving faster.
Crossing a river might seem easy, but you actually have to do it carefully. The safest places to cross are often straight sections between river bends. The swifter the current, the shallower it needs to be to safely cross. You can always throw a stick in to see how swift the current is, but in case you have doubts, remember that it’s better to cross deep, slow water, than swift and shallow water. If you do cross, always face upstream, with the water flowing toward you, and lean forward slightly, keeping your feet shoulder-width apart. Bending your knees to lower your center of gravity and having a third point of contact can ensure your safety if you’re crossing alone.